GET JOPESTKIL JIGGERS INFESTATION CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT IN KENYA
JIGGERS AND JIGGER FLEA CONTROL IN KENYA
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JIGGER INFESTATION CONTROL IN KENYA
A jigger is a small parasitic flea that burrows into the
skin of a warm-blooded host before laying eggs. They generally attack feet or hands. At first, the jigger appears as a small black dot on the skin. As the female’s abdomen fills with blood and eggs, a bump forms underneath the skin, which is often painful and itchy and makes walking incredibly difficult.
With her back end still sticking out of the host’s body, the female releases her eggs then eventually dies. But did you know? Only female jiggers burrow into the skin. If left untreated, jiggers can lead to deadly secondary infections or even amputation. People suffering with jiggers usually attempt to remove them with safety pins, thorns, or other sharp, and often unsanitary objects.
Jiggers, not to be confused with chiggers, is a dermatologic infiltration by a flea called Tunga penetrans. The name jiggers comes from the synonym for the causative flea, the jigger flea, and is one of many synonyms. Today, many health professionals refer to jiggers by its more formal name of tungiasis.
Jiggers is a very old condition that has been described as far back as Christopher Columbus’ days in 1492. There is no predilection of Jiggers to anyone and it can occur in people young to old, male or female, and every other type of individual regardless of race. Classically it has been described to be relatively common among Caribbean nations, but does occur in other tropical or subtropical places throughout the world in sandy environments.
The lifecycle of the jigger flea occurs in sandy environments. After the jigger flea develops into adult form, male and female fleas will forage on warm-blooded animals or humans for a tasty banquet of blood. Although males and females feed on blood, only the females burrow into the skin which primarily causes the symptoms associated with tungiasis. Since the fleas cannot jump very far, the most common areas of involvement are the feet where direct contact with fleas occurs. Specifically, the skin part of the toe surrounding the nail is the most common site. However, the webs of the toes or soles of the feet can also be involved.
Initially, a little black spot appears where the female burrows into the skin. At this point, infected individuals don’t usually notice any symptoms or other signs that they are infected. After a short time, perhaps a few days, a small white bump will develop in the spot where the female invaded the skin. The bump will progressively get larger, and an area of redness and inflammation will occur around the white bump. During this stage, the patient usually develops some itching and pain. As the female resides in the skin, she continues to lay eggs over about a two-week period and then dies. The death of the female flea is marked by a black scab or crust covering the initial point of entry into the skin. Due to the invasive nature of the flea, infection with bacteria or other microbes can occur and result in complications. The worst and most dreaded complication is rampant infection requiring amputation.
Although most people can recover from the jigger infestation and heal without having any treatment, the signs and symptoms can mimic other ailments, so people usually seek treatment. Also, most people prefer to be cured from the invasion instead of waiting. A sterile needle can be used to remove the fleas from the skin when the infestation has recently occurred. Other more invasive procedures like surgery may be indicated at later stages, especially if there are other complications from the flea invasion. Patients should make sure they are up to date on their tetanus vaccination. Oral or topical medications can help alleviate symptoms and help recover from infection faster. People can prevent infection by covering their feet or not directly contacting the sand when in areas known to have jigger fleas.
Penetration of the skin causes intense itching and is followed by inflammation and acute pain. The jigger is evident as a small swollen lesion, with a black dot at the center, which can grow to the size of a pea.
Severe pathology following an infestation is caused by bacteria entering the skin when the jigger penetrates. These infections can lead to abscess formation, tissue necrosis and gangrene. Tungiasis has also been associated with tetanus, possible due to the entry of the soil pathogen, Clostridium tetani into the wound. In addition, Wolbachia bacteria, present in the jigger, release inflammation-inducing lipopolysaccharides into the surrounding tissue when the females die.
The risk of acute pathology can be prevented by removal of the jigger with a sterile needle and disinfection of the affected area. However, in poor rural or shanty-town settings non-sterile objects are often used to winkle the jigger out, including thorns or non-sterile pins, thereby introducing more bacteria.
Are Cockroaches Dangerous? Info About Potential Harm
Yes. Cockroaches can be dangerous. They can spread harmful bacteria that can cause a variety of diseases. They can also cause problems for people with allergies and asthma.
Why Are Cockroaches Dangerous?
Cockroaches are capable of biting humans and animals, but they rarely do. They often bite humans on the eyelids because they feed on dead skin and eyelashes, that is why they would normally bite those who are sleeping. Still, they may occasionally bite anywhere in the body.
They also do not have a sting, which makes their bites harmless compared to other insects. Their bites also swell and look a little bigger than mosquito bites. While these insects have no poison or venom, their bites can easily get infected because of the harmful bacteria they carry on their bodies.
Most cockroach species are very unsanitary. They usually feed on trash, spoiled food, and dead animal flesh. They also live and breed in sewage and lay waste all over the house and leave droppings on surfaces and food. This makes them the bearer of many pathogens that can cause different diseases.
If a human consumes any food that has been contaminated by cockroaches, they may be at risk of food poisoning. A study conducted by researchers from Cambridge University discovered the possible risk of bacterial dissemination in houses infested with cockroaches. Based on the research, there are 30 different bacteria associated with these insects that roam around the house.
Cockroaches may also play a significant role in the proliferation of different infections. According to a report from the World Health Organization, cockroaches could have been the carriers of certain diseases like diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, salmonella, typhoid fever, and other viral diseases like poliomyelitis.
People who had direct contact with cockroaches may also get serious diseases because of the bacteria they bring. One of these bacteria is the Staphylococcus aureus. It can cause minor ailments in humans like boils, but it can also cause more serious infections that may target the heart and lungs.
Are Cockroaches Bad for People with Allergies and Asthma?
Perhaps people who have asthma and other allergies are the most affected with the presence of cockroaches at home. Based on research funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, cockroach allergens are primary contributors to childhood asthma in urban dwellings. The cockroach allergens come from the insects’ feces, secretions, saliva, cast skins, as well as their dead bodies.
Anyone whose allergies will be triggered by the presence of cockroaches will experience itchy, watery eyes and constant sneezing. They may also experience rash breakouts if the cockroach had direct contact with the skin. Others with severe allergic reactions can experience coughing, tightness in the chest and throat, as well as difficulty in breathing.
Aside from the danger they pose to humans, cockroaches can also pose a threat to other animals like dogs and cats. While these tiny insects are usually afraid of bigger animals, they can still feed on their outer skin whenever they get extremely hungry. They normally bite pets who are immobile and unable to shoo them away. They may also contaminate the pet’s food and water bowls. If cockroaches get in direct contact with the food, they can immediately spread bacteria and make the pet sick.
How Are Cockroaches a Danger at Home?
Cockroaches do not only have a negative effect on a person’s health, but they can also affect their properties. They are very messy and dirty and brings an offensive smell inside the home.
These nasty bugs can also ruin furniture made with any materials. They emit portions of partially digested food and other secretions through the intervals located in their mouths. They secrete foul-smelling liquids through the glands in their bodies. These can also produce ugly stains on fabrics. If the smells and the stains are not treated properly, these may leave a permanent effect that would be almost impossible to remove.
These little bugs can also consume anything in sight. Aside from the garbage, they will also eat paper, book bindings, the inner linings of shoe soles, as well as anything in the cupboard. They can even eat all the food you have in the pantry. If this happens, the unconsumed food touched by cockroaches should be discarded immediately due to contamination.
To prevent this, food must never be left uncovered. It should be kept properly in sealed containers. It is also advisable to clean the pantry and the refrigerator at least once a week. People can also avoid inviting cockroaches inside the house by removing any pile of old magazines, books, and newspapers.
More importantly, the trash bin must always be emptied regularly. This will make sure that cockroaches will have no food source inside the home.
How Can Cockroaches Be a Danger to Businesses?
Business owners know the importance of proper sanitation in their place of work. This is especially true for those who are in the food industry. Aside from the quality of food and service they need to provide their customers, restaurants and food stalls must always keep their place clean and germ-free. A single sighting of a crawling cockroach can tarnish the restaurant’s reputation in a snap. If other customers learned that there are cockroaches inside the place, who would want to eat in an unsanitary and unhygienic restaurant?.
Once a customer gets sick from consuming food or drinks that have been contaminated by cockroaches, they may never return to that establishment. That is not the worse thing that can happen. The sick customers will definitely ask for some sort of compensation for getting sick. They may also leave unfavorable reviews in online business feedback sites and social media, which will have a negative effect on the reputation of the restaurant instantly.
Aside from the negative reviews, cockroaches may also be the reason why dining establishments are closed down. The government normally monitors these businesses to check their sanitation compliance. If the inspectors discover a cockroach infestation, the establishment may be shut down temporarily until the business owner addresses the problem. But if the infestation returns, the government might ban the restaurant from operating permanently.
This is why it is very important for businesses to maintain cleanliness inside their establishments. It would be best if there is a regular schedule for cleaning the trash bins, scrubbing the floors and sinks inside the kitchen, and thorough washing of kitchen equipment. This will prevent cockroaches from going inside the food preparation area to eat the ingredients and any visible food inside.
What Types of Cockroaches Are Dangerous?
While there are more than 4,000 species of cockroaches all over the world, there are at least five types of these insects that are identified as the most dangerous to humans and other animals. The list includes:
American Cockroach – This bug is the largest among all the common household cockroaches. It measures 1.5 inches long and about 0.25 inches tall. It can be identified by its reddish-brown color and a flat, wide oval body. This type of cockroach normally hides in basements, foundations, drains, pipes, and crawl spaces. It is naturally an omnivore, but it can eat anything if it becomes really hungry. It may even eat other dead cockroaches if it cannot find any other food source.
German Cockroach – A German cockroach infestation is very common at home since this type reproduces the fastest compared to the other common cockroaches. It normally resides in the bathroom, the kitchen, the dining areas, as well as the other warm and moist places inside the house. It normally eats sugary and fatty food, but it can also eat other common household items like toothpaste, glue, and soap.
Brown-banded Cockroach – Also known as the Supella longipalpa, you can distinguish this type of cockroach with its reddish-brown to dark brown color. It also possesses wings that have a darker color at the base and turns lighter as it goes higher. It got its name from the two noticeable bands seen across its body. This can be found in dryer, warmer areas around the house. Most of the time, a brown-banded cockroach hide inside the cabinets of the bathrooms and kitchen.
Asian Cockroach – It looks somewhat similar to German cockroaches, but it has longer wings that allow it to fly. It is also attracted to light, which is why it is normally spotted during the day. But because it has the same appearance as the German cockroach, the two species can be mistaken for each other.
Oriental Cockroach – This is the second-largest cockroach species that commonly infest a household. It normally has a dark brown to black color. Most of the time, this type of cockroach does not like to stay indoors. Yet, it enjoys staying in drains, porches, and basements.
What Types of Cockroaches Are Dangerous?
All these types of cockroaches are very dangerous if left to reproduce and infest the household. If their population grow inside the house, they may spread a lot of bacteria that can cause different diseases. The house will also be at risk of having a foul odor if these pesky insects take over the place.
Since cockroaches are proven to be very dangerous to one’s health, it is vital to get rid of these insects as soon as possible. This can only happen if the house will be kept clean at all times. If the cockroach infestation persists, homeowners may contact professional pest control services to address the problem and eradicate the cockroaches once and for all. It’s a little investment to keep each family member safe from any possible infectious diseases at home
There are many insects that are nocturnal, including pests like bedbugs, mosquitoes, and centipedes and cockroaches. These bugs come out at night because that’s when they’re most active, hunting for food, finding water, and looking for mates. Some insects also prefer the cooler temperature the night brings.
Nocturnal Pests to Look Out For
Not all nocturnal insects are harmful, but a select few can greatly impact a person’s quality of life in a negative way. This article will focus on those that are considered pests. Here are some night-active insect species you might want to keep an eye out for.
Bedbugs feed on the blood of people and pets, and they tend to infest the places where people and pets sleep — mattresses, pillows, and dog beds.
Their bites can cause skin irritation and itchiness in some people, and bedbug activity can keep some people awake at night. But they do not carry any diseases.
Bedbugs spread through travel, attaching themselves to your clothing and baggage. And it only takes one female to start an infestation, regardless of how clean your home is. The best prevention is to check your belongings regularly while traveling to avoid bringing them home with you.
Once an infestation has started, bedbugs are difficult to control. Call a professional if you need help with bedbug extermination.
Centipedes are predatory insects that like to hunt at night. They have flat bodies, with more than eight pairs of legs and long antennae. While bites are rare, if they’re cornered it can happen. And while they are venomous, their venom isn’t that strong.
Since these critters tend to look for moisture, stopping moisture problems in your home can prevent them from moving in. And keeping the humidity low inside your house can also help. You might also avoid letting clutter build up so they have fewer places to hide if they do make their way inside.
Cockroaches are another nocturnal insect you don’t want inside your home. They are shy of people and will hide away behind refrigerators and under stoves during the day, venturing out at night in search of food.
To most people, cockroaches serve as a sign of uncleanliness, but in reality they can thrive even in the cleanest homes if they have access to hiding places. They can also go without food for up to a month at a time.
Cockroaches are carriers of several diseases and can contaminate food and water. Their feces and dead bodies can also exacerbate allergies and asthma in some people.
To prevent cockroaches from getting into your home, you should seal up any cracks or holes in your foundation and around doors and windows. Regularly cleaning behind refrigerators and beneath ovens can prevent them from using those places to hide.
Mosquitoes are known carriers of viruses that cause serious infectious and potentially life-threatening diseases. Some of these diseases include dengue fever, West Nile fever, malaria, and Zika virus.
Because mosquitoes lay eggs in stagnant water, eliminating sources of standing water around your house can help prevent them from congregating near your home. This includes puddles of water in the yard, open outdoor water containers, clogged gutters, and even flower vases.
Additionally, you can keep them out of your house by installing window and door screens if you plan on having windows and doors open during the warmer months.
While not necessarily dangerous, crickets can sometimes find their way inside the house, where they “sing” all night long. Crickets are loud up close — loud enough to quickly become a nuisance. However, you may find yourself losing a lot of sleep when you deal with them indoors.
You can keep them out though by keeping entrances covered with screens. Crickets are also attracted to light, so you might consider using motion sensor lights at night or trying yellow bug lights. They also like humidity, moisture, and heat, so use a dehumidifier and clean up indoor areas where they can find water freely.
Why are so Many Insects Nocturnal?
Hunting for food. A lot of insects hunt for food at night. After a good day’s rest inside the dark nooks they reside in, they come out to look and hunt for their food. Most of their prey is also nocturnal, so it makes a lot of sense to strike when their prey comes out.
Avoiding predators. Many creatures that prey on insects, such as birds, are diurnal. To avoid daytime predators, insects tend to become more active after dark, when those predators are no longer active. They may also enjoy a certain amount of cover at night that they wouldn’t have in the bright light of day.
Cooler temperatures. The overall temperature in an area goes down after the sun sets. Some insects can’t take the heat during the day, so they prefer to come out at night.
Handling Nocturnal Bugs in General
Using Warm Light
Most nocturnal bugs tend to be attracted to cool-toned white light and UV lights. Using incandescent and fluorescent bulbs around your home may attract insects. To avoid this, replace “cool white”-light-emitting bulbs around your home with warmer-toned bulbs. The best ones to use are LEDs emitting light with yellow undertones.
Making your house unattractive to bugs by switching to LED lights is also energy efficient and eco-friendly.
Using Bug Zappers
Another way to handle nocturnal bugs is to buy a bug zapping lamp. These lamps usually take advantage of an insect’s attraction to UV or cool-toned light to get rid of them. They use light to entice insects close until they touch a high-voltage mesh that electrocutes and kills bugs.
It’s a time-tested way of getting rid of many flying night bugs, and many different types of bug zapping lamps are available. The only downside to these is that they kill indiscriminately, which means many beneficial insects will also fall victim to your zapper.
There are many natural aromas that humans love and insects hate. For example, the smell of citronella can help repel mosquitoes and other bugs around the house. Peppermint and cloves are two alternatives you can use if you don’t like citronella.
Scented candles and diffusers can both be used. Candles work on two fronts, scent and smoke to repel insects, while diffusers can release a larger amount of scent into the air. You can also make potpourri bags with herbs and spices and place them around your house.
Reducing Potential Spawning Areas
An effective way to get rid of bugs around your house is to prevent them from spawning altogether. One of the best ways to do so is by getting rid of, or cleaning up, their potential spawning areas. Areas with stagnant water like gutters and puddles are attractive spawning grounds for many insects, like mosquitoes.
Humid and moist nooks are also places insects like to nest. Cleaning up these areas can significantly lessen the population.
Nocturnal bugs love to stay in dark nooks and crannies until nighttime. Clutter inside the house provides great hiding places, so keep clutter from building up. Not only will this decrease the areas in your house that insects can use, but you’ll also notice sooner if they start to move in.
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